This is quite an interesting topic to discuss. It does not seems to be a hard topic taking into account our superior technology in computing but it is not as easy as it sounds.
ASIMO was created by Honda and this shows that Man can create Machines no matter what the constrains are.
Artificial Intelligence actually are divided into several parts. And what is interesting about all those parts is, they mimic a human. How human acts, how human decide, how human learns so on and so forth.
Firstly, it is important to have a knowledge representation. Human learns everyday and they built up their knowledge. But how does robot represent the knowledge. How do they know that they knew something. This is the basic in AI where robot need to represent knowledge in form of something. One of the branch in research in this part is the first order predicated logic.
Secondly, human learns. And when human errs, they know it and will not repeat the mistake. Human learns by themselves and sometimes in aid of a teacher. Robot is the same. They need to learn in order to survive. But how do they know what is right and what is wrong? Artificial neural network is one of the research to mimic human learning.
Thirdly, human makes decision. In some points in life, human need to make decision, either it be big or small. For example, what to have for dinner? what to study tonight? what to wear for tomorrow? Robots sometimes need to decide. How much should they actuate to produce a desired outcome? What path should they go to minimize the effort to reach a location? Readers could search for fuzzy logic as a decision maker in this part of AI.
Fourthly, human reproduces and evolves. This idea of evolution was from Charles Darwin. In evolutionary programming, robots need to keep evolving to create the best. This does not necessarily mean that one robot creates another robot but rather the evolution of methods. One of the topic in research is genetic algorithm.
Of course there are many more ways and parts in artificial intelligence, the possibilities is limitless. With on going research in this topic, one can never imagine what will be produced in the future.
[Fuzzy logic was implemented on UTM's robot to decide on the amount of acceleration to achieve a certain speed of robot]Edit: Link to the article.
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